Welcome to the 42 Degrees Library Beginner’s Guide for Diverse SOGIESC Inclusion

Including people with diverse sexual orientations, gender identities and expressions, and sex characteristics (SOGIESC) in humanitarian and development work is vital. The existing humanitarian system and development sector is built upon assumptions about sexuality and gender–assumptions that aren’t always true. This means people with diverse SOGIESC are often left out of humanitarian interventions and development programming. If you’re interested in learning more, please check out the resources in this Beginner’s Guide. These resources have been designed and selected to enable you to better understand why inclusion is so important–and how you can make it happen.

About Us

42 Degrees is a project of Edge Effect, including this Library of resources, and two upcoming services: a community of practice and online training. Why are we doing this? Who is behind it? Why is it called 42 Degrees? Well, it’s been quite the journey and we’re excited to share our story with you. All that and more is here, including ways you can get in contact.

42 Degress Glossary and Lexicon

What does SOGIESC mean? When should I use LGBTIQ+? What, exactly, is heteronormativity? If you’ve come up against these questions–or others like them–our Lexicon and Glossary is a great place to start. The terminology and acronyms might seem intimidating but we promise that once you get to know them, you’ll understand why it’s so important that we use inclusive language. The Glossary and Lexicon is an excellent starting place for all 42 Degrees Library users.

Why diverse SOGEISC inclusion matters

This analysis by Edge Effect Co-Founder and Co-Director Emily Dwyer is a critical entry-point for humanitarian practitioners. It articulates why people with diverse SOGIESC have specific needs in humanitarian settings, and why addressing these needs is consistent with a principled needs-based approach, and with the rights of people with diverse SOGIESC as affirmed by the Human Rights Council. ‘Why Diverse SOGIESC Inclusion Matters’ is a foundational part of the 42Degrees Library.

Yogyakarta Principles +10

People with diverse sexual orientation, gender identities and expressions, and sex characteristics (SOGIESC) are not explicitly included in key international human rights frameworks, treaties or covenants. The Yogyakarta Principles were created in 2007 (and revised in 2017 as YP+10) by international jurists and human rights experts. They provide a guide as to how existing human rights obligations apply regarding people with diverse SOGIESC, including a range of fundamental economic, social and cultural rights within the domain of development and humanitarian action.

PitHS Consultation Report

In Bangkok in June 2018 diverse SOGIESC CSO representatives met with representatives of humanitarian organisations in a ground-breaking meeting: Pride in the Humanitarian System (PitHS). The report provides insight into a) the humanitarian context in Asia and the Pacific within which inclusion measures are needed, b) stories of exclusion and strength that were shared by diverse SOGIESC CSO representatives, c) barriers and opportunities, and d) recommendations in a range of thematic areas. This is a key resource and inspiration.

Down By the River

Chances are, if you’ve heard of Edge Effect, you’ve heard of ‘Down By The River’, a narrative research exploration of experiences of Fijian sexual and gender minorities. The stories focus on the impact of Tropical Cyclone Winston (2016), but also include life experiences leading up to TC Winston, that impacted the options available in relief and recovery. While Fiji-focused, the stories, discussion and recommendations have regional and global relevance for researchers, policy-makers and practitioners alike.

Stay on-top of the latest projects from 42 Degrees Library, including our newsletter, upcoming online trainings, and our community of practice!


A LGBTIQ+ lens is needed for all humanitarian and development work, not only areas such sexual health and protection. Good to see @USAID expanding the envelope, hoping more donors will communicate raised expectations for their implementing partners + fund projects accordingly. https://t.co/rl5JvyERRl
sogiesc photo
USAID Education @USAIDEducation
October is #LGBTQI+ History Month! During the month, @USAID is commemorating the history and achievements of LGBTQI+ people. Learn more about integrating LGBTQI+ considerations into education programming here: https://t.co/OL0GZAPS55 https://t.co/CLMKK8B234

Localisation in the humanitarian sector, ironically, often seems to be a conversation between global north organisations. What could it be instead? https://t.co/RJRLpHKrLh

There is a growing intersex rights movement. Humanitarian + development orgs need to get to know the I in LGBTIQ+. Read the Darlington Statement, register for @intersexaus webinar on 26 Oct, + support orgs like @IntersexAsia + IHRA on #GiveOutDay

https://t.co/3f7e9scXds https://t.co/Cp6LhCzEuX
sogiesc photo

#DRR day is a great day to read @unwomenasia + @sogiesc's The Only Way Is Up on addressing diverse SOGIESC (LGBTIQ+) exclusion in disasters and crises. And for committing your organisation to benchmark its current level of inclusion using our new tool! https://t.co/28EM20G9aR https://t.co/lvX8bJJzvi sogiesc photo

#DayOfTheGirl for all girls. Include lesbian, bisexual, intersex, trans + queer girls in technology-driven futures, in SRHR education that supports their choices + safety, in online spaces free of violence and stigma, and in a world in which they can be themselves. https://t.co/Jc74CNRwZw
sogiesc photo
UN Special Procedures @UN_SPExperts
Girls who do not conform to gender stereotypes – incl. lesbian, bisexual & trans girls – are particularly vulnerable to violence and discrimination, @victor_madrigal says. Ahead of the #DayOfTheGirl the expert calls for inclusive & comprehensive sexuality education. #EndViolence https://t.co/047HD37hpG

Today (Oct 11) is Coming Out Day. Amid celebrations of lives openly lived, many people live in circumstances where coming out is not an option (or not a priority). https://t.co/vZ6KdIGzcB has resources for humanitarian + dev orgs to reduce stigma + include us https://t.co/e4FYTD2CV2 sogiesc photo

Most Popular Articles

Bringing diverse sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) into peacebuilding policy and practice

The authors of this article argue that lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex or queer people are ignored in the existing peacebuilding system.

Blueprint for the Provision of Comprehensive Care for Trans People and Trans Communities in Asia and the Pacific

The purpose of The Blueprint for the Provision of Comprehensive Care for Trans People and Trans Communities in Asia and the Pacific...

Being LGBT in Asia: Indonesia Country Report

Being LGBT in Asia is a report focusing on eight priority countries: Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Mongolia, Nepal, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet...

Audacity in Adversity: LGBT Activism in the Middle East and North Africa

The report opens with a background on the legal context, noting that most Arab states inherited laws against homosexuality from French and...

Rohingya Refugee Response Gender Analysis: Recognising and responding to gender inequalities

This gender analysis aims to reveal the gaps in humanitarian action, response and services available to the nearly one million Rohingya refugees...

Sexual and gender minorities in disaster

This article considers the implications of the absence of sexual and gender minorities from DRR planning, research,...

Building Stronger Equality Movements: Managing backlash against women’s and LGBT+ rights movements in the Commonwealth

Developed by Edge Effect for the Equality Justice Alliance (EJA), this multi-country study considers the experiences of feminist/women's rights activists and diverse...

We Don’t Do A Lot For Them Specifically: improving diverse SOGIESC inclusion in cash transfer and social protection programs, during the COVID-19 crisis and...

Many people with diverse SOGIESC had pressing social protection needs prior to the COVID-19 crisis, borne of multi-layered discrimination and systemic marginalization...

Intersecting Exclusions: Displacement and gender-based violence among people with diverse sexualities and gender identities in Kenya

While many gaps remain, a small but growing body of literature has expanded to address the particular experiences of gender-based violence (GBV)...

The Only Way Is Up: Monitoring and Encouraging Diverse SOGIESC Inclusion in the Humanitarian and DRR Sectors

There is clear evidence that people with diverse Sexual Orientations, Gender Identities and Expressions, and Sex Characteristics (SOGIESC – aka LGBTIQ+ people)...

No such thing as neutral: Understanding the implications of COVID-19 for communities with diverse SOGIE in the Global North

This Think Piece is by Kirsty McKellar, one of Edge Effect’s 2020 interns. Kirsty has recently completed her masters of Development Studies...

“Every Day I Live in Fear” – Violence and Discrimination Against LGBT People in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, and Obstacles to Asylum in...

This 162-page report looks at the discrimination and violence experienced by LGBT people from El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras. The report examines their experiences...

Developing Actionable Research Priorities for LGBTI Inclusion

This academic article highlights which areas of research should be prioritised to promote LGBTI inclusion. The article notes the distinct lack of data across...

LGBTI Migrants in Immigration Detention: A Global Perspective

This academic article examines the unique challenges faced by LGBTI migrants in detention centres across the globe. The article looks at international law in...

DEVELOPMENT RESOURCES

We Don’t Do A Lot For Them Specifically: improving diverse SOGIESC inclusion in cash transfer and social protection programs, during the COVID-19 crisis and...

Many people with diverse SOGIESC had pressing social protection needs prior to the COVID-19 crisis, borne of multi-layered discrimination and systemic marginalization...

Sistergirls/Brotherboys: The Status of Indigenous Transgender Australians

This article presents the findings of a discourse analysis of 12 research projects and conference forums pertaining to the lived experiences of...

Human Rights Law and Discrimination Against LGBT People in Japan

In this 2016 report by Amnesty International, the authors flesh-out the inconsistencies in Japan's application of international human rights treaties, to which it is...

LGBT Advocacy and Transnational Funding in Singapore and Malaysia

This academic article looks at the role of transnational funding of LGBT advocacy in Singapore and Malaysia. The author examines the effectiveness of such...

Lessons from Gay and Lesbian Activism in Asia: The Importance of Context, Pivotal Incidents and Connection to a Larger Vision

This academic article examines the factors that influence the success of gay and lesbian activism in Asia. The article looks specifically at the jurisdictions...

LGBTQI-identified human rights defenders: courage in the face of adversity at the United Nations

This article examines the experiences of human rights defenders who work at the United Nations and identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, transgender, two...

Same-sex lives between the language of international LGBT rights, international aid, and anti-homosexuality

This academic article examines how LGBT rights intersect with international aid in Africa. In particular, the article looks at how the protection of LGBT...

We deserve human rights: Interview with Emma Yaaka

Emma Yaaka (he/him) is an LGBTIQ+ advocate who has worked to provide medical services and information to LGBTIQ+ refugees in Kenya and...