Male and LGBT survivors of sexual violence in conflict situations: a realist review of health interventions in low-and middle-income countries

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This systematic review is relevant to humanitarian and development practitioners, as well as those working in global and public health, because it offers a systematic review of CRSV literature with the view of understanding how LGBT and male survivors are currently being treated; attending to the gaps identified in this report should be a sectoral imperative.

This paper is the first systematic review of medical, mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interventions that aims to understand how existing interventions address (or do not address) male and LGBT survivors of CRSV. The review explores the gender differences in context, mechanisms and outcomes that underpin interventions addressing the health and psychosocial wellbeing of male and LGBT survivors. 

The review opens with a background on CRSV and existing knowledge before delving into the systematic review.

The review presents the methodology for systematic literature review as well as the results (quantitative). The review includes a systematic search of academic and grey literature to identify medical and MHPSS interventions that included men, boys and LGBT survivors. The authors then identified interventions specifically targeting women and girls that we used as comparators. A total of 26 evaluations of interventions for survivors of CRSV were identified. Nine studies included male survivors, twelve studies focussed exclusively on female survivors and one study targeted children and adolescents. The review found that no intervention evaluation focussed on LGBT survivors of CRSV.

The review then moves into ‘theory building’ for LGBT and male-targeted CRSV programs. A discussion of findings and implications follows. The review considers how gender norms impact resource-seeking behaviour.

The review concludes with the assertion that data generation is an imperative; and that filling this gap in CRSV literature and interventions is of immediate importance.

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"LGBT persons who survive sexual violence may be confronted with the additional challenge of a heightened sense of vulnerability linked to their sexual orientation or gender identity."

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This paper is the first systematic review of medical, mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interventions that aims to understand how existing interventions address (or do not address) male and LGBT survivors of CRSV. The review explores the gender differences in context, mechanisms and outcomes that underpin interventions addressing the health and psychosocial wellbeing of male and LGBT survivors. 

The review opens with a background on CRSV and existing knowledge before delving into the systematic review.

The review presents the methodology for systematic literature review as well as the results (quantitative). The review includes a systematic search of academic and grey literature to identify medical and MHPSS interventions that included men, boys and LGBT survivors. The authors then identified interventions specifically targeting women and girls that we used as comparators. A total of 26 evaluations of interventions for survivors of CRSV were identified. Nine studies included male survivors, twelve studies focussed exclusively on female survivors and one study targeted children and adolescents. The review found that no intervention evaluation focussed on LGBT survivors of CRSV.

The review then moves into ‘theory building’ for LGBT and male-targeted CRSV programs. A discussion of findings and implications follows. The review considers how gender norms impact resource-seeking behaviour.

The review concludes with the assertion that data generation is an imperative; and that filling this gap in CRSV literature and interventions is of immediate importance.