Sexual Orientation & Gender Identity in Contexts Affected by Fragility, Conflict and Violence

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This report is relevant for humanitarian and development practitioners looking for high-level guidance on and a review of research on the experiences of sexual and gender minorities in conflict.

This discussion paper provides an analysis of secondary sources pertaining to the challenges faced by sexual and gender minorities in fragile, conflict, and violence (FCV) affected states. The report aims to outline existing knowledge and guidance for development and humanitarian practitioners.

The report opens with a discussion of FCV states around the world and some of the challenges sexual and gender minorities face in developing contexts. These challenges include access to basic services and employment; specific issues in forced displacement; and sexual and gender based violence. Specifically, the report notes some of the institutional challenges in aid distribution such as the heteronormative assumptions made around household units; asylum seeking for sexual and gender minorities in countries where same-sex relations are banned; issues for transgender asylum-seekers in housing and livelihoods and protection gaps for sexual and gender minorities who experience sexual and gender based violence.

The report concludes by offering recommendations to fill these protection gaps including fit-for-purpose data collection, SOGI country profiles, a cohesive World Bank approach across the World Bank Group, better cross-sectoral collaboration, and knowledge generation and dissemination, among other solutions.

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"However, some humanitarian organizations sometimes operate under the incorrect assumption that households—the most-frequently utilized unit for aid distribution—include a heterosexual man and a heterosexual woman. Doing so ignores the fact that households can also be made-up of same-sex couples and people of diverse SOGI."

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This discussion paper provides an analysis of secondary sources pertaining to the challenges faced by sexual and gender minorities in fragile, conflict, and violence (FCV) affected states. The report aims to outline existing knowledge and guidance for development and humanitarian practitioners.

The report opens with a discussion of FCV states around the world and some of the challenges sexual and gender minorities face in developing contexts. These challenges include access to basic services and employment; specific issues in forced displacement; and sexual and gender based violence. Specifically, the report notes some of the institutional challenges in aid distribution such as the heteronormative assumptions made around household units; asylum seeking for sexual and gender minorities in countries where same-sex relations are banned; issues for transgender asylum-seekers in housing and livelihoods and protection gaps for sexual and gender minorities who experience sexual and gender based violence.

The report concludes by offering recommendations to fill these protection gaps including fit-for-purpose data collection, SOGI country profiles, a cohesive World Bank approach across the World Bank Group, better cross-sectoral collaboration, and knowledge generation and dissemination, among other solutions.